Skip to main content

Has Econ 101 done just fine?

Krugman tells us that:
"huge government deficits could fail to raise interest rates in a depressed economy ... is what Econ 101 said – and it has been completely right. Basic IS-LM macro also said that under these conditions printing lots of money would not be inflationary, and that cutting government spending sharply would cause the economy to shrink. All of this has come true. So Econ 101 has done just fine ..."
Note, however, that Krugman basically believes that this is the case because the economy is in a liquidity trap, and the natural rate of interest for him is negative. That is, the rate of interest that would stimulate enough investment to bring about full employment savings is below zero. As I have argued here there are several empirical and logical reasons why one should doubt that kind of imperfectionist argument.

So, yes the Old Keynesians policy prescriptions do work, and have done quite well, even if their theories do fail miserably, as much as any other neoclassical approach that presumes that markets work by the magic of supply and demand producing optimal outcomes.

And that is also why what we need is not more monetary stimulus, or any hocus pocus to convince investors that inflation is going to be higher. We need more demand. And as Paul Davidson said in his reply to Tyler Cowen, only the government can do this now:
"if the government were to let contracts for, say, $1 trillion to private enterprise to rebuild our failing highways, bridges, and municipal water and sewage systems, and provide resources for our shrinking public and higher education systems, this would quickly restore companies’ confidence in the profit opportunities that are available if they hire workers and buy materials from other United States companies. When these newly hired workers go out and spend their wages, the confidence of United States retailers would immediately surge as these additional customers break down the doors to get at the merchandise on the shelves.  Nothing will build the confidence and trust of business and workers quicker than the continuous ringing of cash registers."
So Paul, that has complained about Econ 101 for a long time, is quite correct. We need spending and not the inflation expectations fairy.

PS: On my views on the ISLM go here.


  1. While I agree with your take here, NK, I think there is more to it.

    I mean, Coyle, Portes and Krugman (Krugman to a lesser degree, to be fair) agree on the notion that microeconomics is essentially fine.

    But it ain't. It totally sucks.

    Why does it matter? It matters because the models mainstreamers use require microfoundations: macro behaviour is only seen as explained if it's based on micro models.

    Have a look at Arnsperger, Christian; Varoufakis, Y. (2006). "What Is Neoclassical Economics?". post-autistic economics review. Issue no. 38.

    But this is not the end of the story, either.

    Let's forget the maths for a moment. We are entering the realm of Austrian economics (which is not considered mainstream).

    But for Austrians, there is only one economics: that of utility maximising individuals plus gold standard monetarism. They even say it explicitly: there is no such thing as Macroeconomics.

    Both sides have in common the notion that macro phenomena are at best secondary. What Austrians do is to take this to the extreme.

  2. Hi Magpie, thanks for the comments. A few brief replies. I know Yannis paper, but as much as I agree on his views on neoclassical economics and its limitations, it's important to emphasize that marginalism is based on the idea that equilibrium (used to be long term) prices are determined by supply and demand, and that relative prices respond to scarcity through the principle of substitution. As such neoclassical economics is a logical failure. Also, Austrian economics does share the neoclassical view of the determination of prices (which by the way implies full utilization of resources) and is very much part of the mainstream, even if for sociological reasons they are marginalized (no pun intended) within the mainstream.


Post a Comment

Popular posts from this blog

What is the 'Classical Dichotomy'?

A few brief comments on Brexit and the postmortem of the European Union

Another end of the world is possible
There will be a lot of postmortems for the European Union (EU) after Brexit. Many will suggest that this was a victory against the neoliberal policies of the European Union. See, for example, the first three paragraphs of Paul Mason's column here. And it is true, large contingents of working class people, that have suffered with 'free-market' economics, voted for leaving the union. The union, rightly or wrongly, has been seen as undemocratic and responsible for the economics woes of Europe.

The problem is that while it is true that the EU leaders have been part of the problem and have pursued the neoliberal policies within the framework of the union, sometimes with treaties like the Fiscal Compact, it is far from clear that Brexit and the possible demise of the union, if the fever spreads to France, Germany and other countries with their populations demanding their own referenda, will lead to the abandonment of neoliberal policies. Aust…

A brief note on Venezuela and the turn to the right in Latin America

So besides the coup in Brazil (which was all but confirmed by the last revelations, if you had any doubts), and the electoral victory of Macri in Argentina, the crisis in Venezuela is reaching a critical level, and it would not be surprising if the Maduro administration is recalled, even though right now the referendum is not scheduled yet.

The economy in Venezuela has collapsed (GDP has fallen by about 14% or so in the last two years), inflation has accelerated (to three digit levels; 450% or so according to the IMF), there are shortages of essential goods, recurrent energy blackouts, and all of these aggravated by persistent violence. Contrary to what the press suggests, these events are not new or specific to left of center governments. Similar events occurred in the late 1980s, in the infamous Caracazo, when the fall in oil prices caused an external crisis, inflation, and food shortages, which eventually, after the announcement of a neoliberal economic package that included the i…